AF-16® can be administered orally, nasally, topically in the eye, topically on mucosa surfaces, intravenously, subcutaneously and topically on the skin.
In animal studies it has been shown that AF-16® has positive effects on disorders of the central nervous system like cerebral oedema and stroke. AF-16® has also demonstrated promising treatment effects in reducing increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma.
The studies show that AF-16® has neuroprotective properties, improves survival of neurons after cerebral trauma, reduces posttraumatic inflammation and oedema and reduces activation of microglia and astrocytes.
AF-16® has very powerful and unique effects in humans. Animal studies in glaucoma have shown that AF-16® is equivalent to other drugs. Moreover AF has no side effects!
AF-16® has also shown significant effects in experimental studies of breast and prostate cancer. The peptide can be administered in addition to chemotherapy and radiation, which means that much more of the cytotoxic drug reaches the tumour cell, which then dies.
Strong effects have also been shown in various head traumas, including cerebral haemorrhage, stroke and direct skull fractures. The AF-peptide provides for example, a three times wider treatment window for stroke compared to current therapies. In a study of mice with virus induced encephalitis (brain inflammation) the survival rate was 100%, which is unique! This has led to interest from WHO.
Other uses have also been identified and a number of animal studies have been made. Not surprisingly, some of the largest global pharmaceutical companies have expressed interest in the AF-peptide.
AF-16® and Neuroprotection
Brain oedema, haemorrhage and obstruction or derangement of the blood-brain barrier can lead to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that can damage brain function, resulting in inflammation with possible persistent neurological and psychiatric malfunctions. The extent of brain damage is related to the severity and length of ICP increase.
In humans, blast –related brain injuries are known to cause brain oedema, vasospasm and intracranial haemorrhage. Current treatment alternatives for reducing ICP are not indicated at low levels (less than 25 mm Hg). However, the effects of exposure to low and mild blast levels of brain injury is of increased interest due to the involvement of many soldiers in wars such as the Afghani war, where soldiers are often subjected to traumatic brain injury without damage to the head.
It has been reported in a rat model study that low blast overpressure in a shock tube resulted in impaired cognitive functions and caused an elevated ICP in a dose-dependent manner (Hoane, Kaplan and Ellis, Brain Res, 2006; 1125: 185-193) link.
In the studies of AF-16® several different brain damage models have been used in two species in order to study diffuse neurotrauma, focal neurotrauma, neurotoxic agents and infections.
The low blast overpressure experiment by Hoane et al has been repeated with rats fed a diet with 20% of an AF-inducing feed, SPC-Flakes® (Säljö, Svensson, Mayorga et al, J Neurotrauma, 2009; 27: 1345-1352) link. The study showed that the addition of SPC-Flakes® prevented the impairment of cognitive function and dramatically reduced the ICP elevation.
AF-16® normalizes the high intracranial pressure (ICP) two days after a head trauma.